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APA Citation Style: Non-Traditional Sources


The following resources are generally considered non-traditional or "miscellaneous" resources in scholarly writing. 

These citations and examples were created using the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), and include the following: (1) a template for the References citation, (2) an example Reference citation, (3) a template for the in-text or parenthetical citation, (4) an example of the in-text or parenthetical citation, and in some cases a note is included with additional instructions.

Non-traditional sources used in an essay or project may not require in-text citation when the source itself is credited in the text of your work.  However, the source should still be included on your References page.

Television Broadcast / Television Series / Episode of a TV Series / Motion Picture
Music Recording / Audio Recording  





A Television Broadcast

1.  Reference list citation format:

Last Name, First Initial of Authority (Title of Authority). (Year, Month Day
          of broadcast). Title of show [Television broadcast]. Location of
          broadcasting company: Broadcasting Company.

2.  Reference list citation example:

Riker, David (Director). (2005, February 11). The city: La ciudad
        
 [Television broadcast]. Alexandria: Public Broadcasting Service.

3.  In-text citation format:

(Last Name of Authority, Year of Broadcast)

4.  In-text citation example:

(Riker, 2005)

[Note:  The authority listed in the entry could be the executive producer, producer, or director.  One or both may be included.]
 





A
Television Series

1.  Reference list citation format:

Last Name, First of authority (Title of Authority). (Year of series first
           season). Title of Series [Television series]. Location of
           broadcasting company: Broadcasting Company.

2.  Reference list citation example:

Bright, K.S. (Executive Producer). (1994). Friends [Television series].
          New York: National Broadcasting Company.

3.  In-text citation format:

(Last Name of Authority, Year of series first season)

4.  In-text citation example:

(Bright, 1994)

[Note: See note related to authority name and title under the example for citing A Television Broadcast.  Also, if discussing a specific season of a television program, the authority and date may change from season to season.]
 





A Single Episode from a Television Series

1.  Reference list citation format:

Last Name, First Initial of Writer (Writer), & Last Name, First Initial of
          Director (Director). (Year of broadcast). Title of episode [Television
          series episode]. In First Initial Last Name of Producer (Producer),
          Title of Series
. Location of broadcasting company: Broadcasting
          Company.

2.  Reference list citation example:

Reich, A., Cohen, T. (Writers), & Bright, K.S. (Director). (2003). The one
          after joey and rachel kiss [Television series episode]. In K.S.
          Bright (Producer), Friends. New York:  National Broadcasting
          Company.

3.  In-text citation format:

(Last Name of Writer & Last Name of Director, Year of broadcast)

4.  In-text citation example:

(Reich, Cohen, & Bright, 2003)

For more information, see page 210 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.
 



 

A Motion Picture

1.  Reference list citation format:

Last Name, First Initial of Producer (Producer), & Last Name, First Initial
          of Director (Director). (Year of release). Title of motion picture
        
 [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Movie studio.

2.  Reference list citation example:

MacDonald, L. (Producer), & Scott, R. (Director). (2000). Gladiator
        
 [Motion picture]. United States: Dreamworks & Universal
          Pictures.

3.  In-text citation format:

(Last Name of Producer & Last Name of Director, Year of release)

4.  In-text citation example:

(MacDonald & Scott, 2000)

For more information, see page 209 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.
 





A
Music Recording

1.  Reference list citation format:

Last Name, First Initial of artist. (Year of Publication). Title of song
          On Title of album [Medium of Recording: CD, record,
          cassette]. Location of record label: Record label.

2.  Reference list citation example:

Vaughan, S. (1963). Love me or leave me. On Anthology [CD].
          Nashville: Stardust Records.

3.  In-text citation format:

(Last Name of artist, Year of Publication, side or track numbers)

4.  In-text citation example:

(Vaughan, 1963, track 7)

For more information, see page 210 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.
 



 

An Audio Recording

1.  Reference list citation format:

Last Name, First Initial of primary contributor (Role of primary
          contributor). (Year of recording). Title of Recording (Medium of
          recording). Location of distributor: Distributor.

2.  Reference list citation example:

Sexton, A. (Speaker). (1999). Anne Sexton reads [Cassette]. New York:
          HarperAudio.

3.  In-text citation format:

(Last Name of primary contributor, Year of recording)

4.  In-text citation example:

(Sexton, 1999)


Spacing Citations

Each citation style has specific rules for indentation and spacing within entries. The first line of each citation should start at the left margin and subsequent lines subsequent lines should be indented.  Use the following guidelines when preparing your list of resources:

  • MLA:  double-space the Works Cited page
  • APA:  double-space the References page
  • Chicago:  double-space the Bibliography page
  • ASA:  double-space the References page
  • Turabian: single-space within each entry and double-space between entries on the Works Cited page

Your list of citations should always be organized alphabetically. For more detailed information on formatting your essay and creating citations, refer to the published citation style guides.  

Avoiding Plagiarism
Writers cite their sources for a number of different reasons.  However, there is not a single good reason for the improper use or faulty citation of research sources.  Visit the Avoiding Plagiarism page for information on avoiding plagiarism.