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MLA Citation Style: Non-Traditional Sources


The following resources are generally considered non-traditional or "miscellaneous" resources in scholarly writing. While the format for each citation is similar to other types of formatting in MLA style, each has subtle differences.

The following entries were created using the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.), and include the following: (1) a template for the Works Cited citation, (2) an example Works Cited citation, (3) a template for the in-text or parenthetical citation, (4) an example of the in-text or parenthetical citation, and in some cases (5) any exceptions to the rule. Non-traditional sources used in an essay or project may not require in-text citation, if the source itself is credited in the text of your work.

Television or Radio Program / Sound Recording / Film / Video Recording or DVD / Performance /
Published Musical Composition / Original Painting, Sculpture, or Photo / Reproduced Painting, Sculpture, Photo /
Painting, Sculpture, Photo in ARTstor / Map or Chart / Advertisement in a Magazine / Advertisement on TV 
 





A Television or Radio Program

1.  Works Cited citation format:

"Title of Episode if any." Title of Program. Title of the series. Name of
           Network. Call Numbers if any, city of local station if any.
           Broadcast date. Medium.

2.  Works Cited citation example:

"One about the Monkey." Friends. National Broadcasting Company.
           WOAI, San Antonio. 6 Feb. 2005. Television.

3.  In-text citation format:

("Title") or (Title)

4.  In-text citation example:

("One about the Monkey")

Note: More information about the program may be included in the citation, such as performers, directors, narrator, episode number, etc. 

For more information, see pages 193-195 in the MLA Handbook, 7th ed.

 





A Sound
Recording

1.  Works Cited citation format:

Artist's Last Name, Artist's First Name. "Name of Song."  Name of
          Recording
. Manufacturer, year of release. Medium.

2.  Works Cited citation example:

Elliot, Missy. "Work It." Under Construction. Elektra, 2004. CD.

3.  In-text citation format:

(Last Name)

...unless more than one song is referenced in which case...

(Last Name, "Title Phrase")

4.  In-text citation example:

(Elliot)

...unless more than one song is referenced, in which case...

(Elliot, "Work")

Note:  The medium for sound recordings will most likely be listed as CD (compact disc), Audiocassette, Audiotape (reel-to-reel tape), or LP (long-playing record).

Live recordings should include the recording date after the name of the album.  The following is an example from the MLA handbook:

Ellington, Duke, cond. First Carnegie Hall Concert.  Duke Ellington Orch.
          Rec. 23 Jan. 1943. Prestige, 1977. LP.

For more information, see pages 195-197 in the MLA Handbook, 7th ed.
 





A Film

1.  Works Cited citation format:

Title. Dir. First Last name. Perf. First Last Name in order of billing.
          Distributor, year of distribution. Medium.

...but if you are citing the contribution of a particular individual, you may include that individual prior to the title...

Last, First Name, their participation. Title. Dir. First Last name.
          Distributor, year of distribution. Medium.

2.  Works Cited citation example:

Mean Girls. Dir. Mark S. Waters. Perf. Lindsay Lohan, Rachel
          McAdams, and Tina Fey. Paramount, 2004. Film.

Lohan, Lindsay, perf. Mean Girls. Dir. Mark S. Waters. Paramount,
          2004. Film.

3.  In-text citation format:

(Title)  or (Last Name)

4.  In-text citation example:

(Mean Girls) or (Lohan)

For more information, see pages 197-198 in the MLA Handbook, 7th ed.
 




A
Video Recording
or DVD

Follow the directions for citing a film, and then change the medium of delivery.

Mean Girls. Dir. Mark S. Waters. Perf. Lindsay Lohan, Rachel
          McAdams, and Tina Fey.  Paramount, 2004. DVD.

If the names of the film distributor and the distributor for the recording are different, include the original copyright date of the film, the name of the distributor for the recording, and the distribution date for the recording.

Lee, Bruce, perf. Enter the Dragon. Dir. Robert Clouse. 1973. Warner,
          2005. Videocassette.





A Performance (play, ballet,
opera, concert)

1.  Works Cited citation format:

Title. By Name of Author/Composer. Dir. Name of Director. Perf. Names
          of Performers. Theatre, City. Date. Performance.

2.  Works Cited citation example:

Hamlet. By William Shakespeare. Dir. John Gielgud. Perf. Richard
          Burton. Shubert Theatre, Boston. 4 Mar. 1964. Performance.

3.  In-text citation format:

(Title)

4.  In-text citation example:

(Hamlet)

For more information, see pages 198-199 in the MLA Handbook, 7th ed.
 



 

A Published Musical Composition
(in print)

1.  Works Cited citation format:

Last, First Name of Composer. Title of Opera, Ballet, Musical
          Composition
. Date of original publication (if different).
          City of Publisher: Publisher, Date. Medium.

2.  Works Cited citation example:

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No. 7 in A, Op. 92. 1812. New York:
           Dover, 1998. Print.

3.  In-text citation format:

(Last Name Page Number)

4.  In-text citation example:

(Beethoven 42)

For more information, see page 199-200 in the MLA Handbook, 7th ed.
 



 

A Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph (original)

 

 

1.  Works Cited citation format:

Name of Creator. Title. Year of Composition. Medium. Name of Museum
          or Current Location, City.

2.  Works Cited citation example:

Da Vinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. 1503-1506. Oil on wood. Louvre, Paris.

3.  In-text citation format:

(Last Name)

4.  In-text citation example:

(Da Vinci)

For more information, see pages 200-201 in the MLA Handbook, 7th ed.
 

 

 

A Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph (reproduced in a book or another work)

1.  Works Cited citation format:

Name of Creator. Title. Year of Composition. Name of Museum or
           Current Location, City. Title of Publication. Ed. Name of Editor.
           Publisher's City: Publisher, Date of Publication. Page number.
           Medium.

2.  Works Cited citation example:

Da Vinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. 1503-1506. Louvre, Paris. The Fictional
          Journals of Leonardo Da Vinci
. Ed. Vincent Lescaroff. Oxford:
          Oxford UP, 2001. 183. Print.

3.  In-text citation format:

(Last Name)

4.  In-text citation example:

(Da Vinci)

For more information, see page 201 in the MLA Handbook, 7th ed.
 

 

 

A Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph (retrieved from ARTstor or another subscription database)

1. Works Cited citation Format:

Last, First Artist's name. Title. Year of Composition. Name of Museum
          or Current Location, City. Database Name. Web. Day Month
          Year of Access.

2. Worked Cited citation Example:

Hopper, Edward. House by the Railroad. 1925. Museum of Modern Art,
          New York City. ARTstor. Web. 9 Feb. 2008.

3. In-text citation format:

(Last Name) or (Last Name, Title Phrase) if citing more than one image by the same author

4. In-text citation example:

(Hopper) or (Hopper, House)

For more information, see pages 189-190 and 200 in the MLA Handbook, 7th ed.
 



 

A Map or Chart

1.  Works Cited citation format:

Name of Map or Chart. Form of document. Location of Publisher:
          Publisher, Year. Medium.

2.  Works Cited citation example:

Michigan. Map. Chicago: Rand, 2000. Print.

3.  In-text citation format:

(Title)

4.  In-text citation example:

(Michigan)

For more information, see page 202 in the MLA Handbook, 7th ed.
 



 

An Advertisement in a Magazine

1.  Works Cited citation format:

Name of Product, Company, or Institution. Advertisement. Publication Day Month Year of Publication: page numbers. Medium.

2.  Works Cited citation example:

Miller Genuine Draft. Advertisement. GQ 4 May 2003: 112. Print.

3.  In-text citation format:

(Name of Product, Company, or Institution)

4.  In-text citation example:

(Miller Genuine Draft)

For more information, see page 202 in the MLA Handbook, 7th ed.
 

 

 

An Advertisement on Television

1.  Works Cited citation format:

Name of Product, Company, or Institution. Advertisement. Channel. Day
          Month Year of Access. Television.

2.  Works Cited citation example:

Pringles potato chips. Advertisement. MTV. 19 Jan. 2005. Television.

3.  In-text citation format:

(Name of Product, Company or Institution)

4.  In-text citation example:

(Pringles potato chips)

For more information, see page 203 in the MLA Handbook, 7th ed.
 


Spacing Citations
Each citation style has specific rules for indentation and spacing within entries. The first line of each citation should start at the left margin and subsequent lines subsequent lines should be indented.  Use the following guidelines when preparing your list of resources:

Your list of citations should always be organized alphabetically. For more detailed information on formatting your essay and creating citations, refer to the published citation style guides.

Avoiding Plagiarism
Writers cite their sources for a number of different reasons.  However, there is not a single good reason for the improper use or faulty citation of research sources.  Visit the Avoiding Plagiarism page for information on avoiding plagiarism.